|Tractate Berachot, Chapter 5
Tosefta 351[If it was time to make Havdalah and a person had] a glass ball2 [candle holder with a candle burning inside it], even though it was not put out [since when it was lit before Shabbat,3 the person] can still say a Beracha (blessing) [on seeing the light of the fire] on it. We do not say a Beracha [on seeing the light of the fire during Havdalah] on a candle of Non-Jews.4 [However, if] a Jew lit [a candle] from [another candle] of a Non-Jew5 or a Non-Jew lit [a candle] from [another candle] of a Jew, [then] we do say a Beracha [on seeing the light of the fire during Havdalah] on it.6 From when do we say a Beracha on it? From when it gets dark.7 [If a person] did not say a Beracha [on seeing the light of the fire during Havdalah] when it got dark, he can still say [that] Beracha the whole night [of Saturday night].8 [If a person] did not say a Beracha [on seeing the light of the fire] the whole night [of Saturday night], he [can] not say the Beracha [on seeing the light of the fire] anymore.9
מסכת ברכות פרק ה
עששית אף על פי שלא כבתה מברך עליה. נר של גוים אין מברכין עליו. ישראל שהדליק מגוי וגוי שהדליק מישראל מברך עליו. מאימתי מברך עליו? משתחשך. לא ברך משתחשך מברך כל הלילה. לא ברך כל הלילה אין מברך מעתה.
- The Tosefta continues with the discussion from the previous Tosefta of what kind of fire can the Beracha on seeing light be said during Havdalah and it also expands on the statement in the Mishna 8:6 that a person cannot say a Beracha on a candle of a Non-Jew during Havdalah.
- For a description and a picture of a glass ball candle holder that the Mishna refers to see note 3 on the previous Tosefta. The reason that the Tosefta says that the candle was burning inside a glass ball and not some other type of a candle holder is because it was probably the most common type of a candle holder in which Shabbat candles were lit, since they gave off the most amount of light, because their walls were clear on all sides.
- In other words, the candle was lit on Friday before Shabbat started and it continued to burn the whole Shabbat and into Saturday night. The Tosefta teaches us that even though the candle was not lit anew on Saturday night, a person can still use it to make Havdalah. The reason that the Tosefta needs to teach us this is because we might have thought that since the whole point of saying a Beracha on a candle during Havdalah is to commemorate the fact that God created light on Saturday night the candle has to be lit on Saturday night. Therefore the Tosefta comes to teach us that even if the candle was lit before that it is still suitable to say the Beracha on during Havdalah.
- Talmud Yerushalmi (Berachot 8:6, Daf 61a) explains that the reason why a candle of a Non-Jew cannot be used for Havdalah is because the Non-Jew may have used it for idol worship and it is forbidden to receive any kind of benefit from something that was used for idol worship. However, Talmud Bavli (Berachot 52b) explains that the reason we do not say a Beracha on a candle of a Non-Jew is because the candle of a Non-Jew did not “rest” on Shabbat. Rashi (Berachot 53a, Meshum Delo Shabbat) interprets that to mean that the Non-Jew did some type of work on Shabbat while using the light of the candle, but the candle itself could have been lit before Shabbat. However, Rabeinu Yonah (Berachot 53a, Rif pages 39a, Ein Mevarchin) interprets that to mean that the Non-Jew actually lit the candle during Shabbat or at the least added oil to it, which is a forbidden type of work (Melachah) on Shabbat. However if the candle was lit on Shabbat in a permitted fashion, for example for a sick person, then a person would be allowed to use it for Havdalah. It is peculiar why the Gemara considers a candle lit on Shabbat by a Non-Jew as something with which forbidden work has been done, since a Non-Jew is allowed to light fire on Shabbat or use it to do other types of work with. I have not been able to find an answer to this question.
- Talmud Bavli (Berachot 53a) explains that in this case, even if the Non-Jew lit the candle on Shabbat, since the Jew lit a new candle from it after Shabbat, when we say a Beracha over this candle we consider as if we say the Beracha on the fire that the Jew lit after Shabbat and not that the Non-Jew lit during Shabbat, therefore it is not considered to be a flame which did not rest on Shabbat. However, according to the reasoning of Talmud Yerushalmi that was mentioned in the previous note that the Non-Jew could have used it for idol worshipping purposes we have to explain that this case in the Tosefta is talking about when the Jew knows for sure that the Non-Jew did not use it for idol worship.
- Since the Jew for sure did not use it for idol worship and did not do any work with it on Shabbat the fire is not problematic and therefore even of the Non-Jew lit another candle from it we still can use it for Havdalah.
- This means when 3 medium stars come out, similar to the law of reading the Shemah in the evening. See Berachot, Tosefta 1:1.
- Since the reason that we say this Beracha to commemorate God’s creation of light, it can be said during the whole night which is considered to be the time period when God created light.
- Literally, “from now on”. Since Saturday night, namely the period of time when God created light, is over, saying the Beracha then would not be considered to be a commemoration of that event, and therefore serves no purpose.